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notatki:brain_sc:brain

Brain

Brain related staff

  • Blue Brain Project - http://bluebrain.epfl.ch/ - brain simulation on IBM supercomputer in Switzerland. Some facts are available here
  • The FACETS Project http://facets.kip.uni-heidelberg.de/ - chip implementation of neural network
  • Mind Machine Project MMP (MIT - project on building an “intelligent machine”)
  • The Semantic Pointer Architecture SPA - project aimed to develop artificial cognitive architectures

Brain simulation

New brain simulator from IBM(en)

IBM unveils a new brain simulator - 18 November 2009—Scientists and engineers at IBM’s Almaden Research Center, in San Jose, Calif., announced today at the Supercomputing Conference (SC09) in Portland, Ore., that they have created the largest brain simulation to date on a supercomputer. The number of neurons and synapses in the simulation exceed those in a cat’s brain; previous simulations have reached only the level of mouse and rat brains. Experts predict that the simulation will have profound effects in two arenas: It will lead to a better understanding of how the brain’s architecture leads to cognition, and it should inspire the design of electronics that mimic the brain’s as-yet-unmatched ability to do complex computation and learn using a small volume of hardware that consumes little power.
More details here

Facts about Blue Brain Project

  • The “Blue Brain” supercomputer in Lausanne, Switzerland, is similar to the Blue Gene computer at Lawrence Livermore National Lab in California (pictured). It can simulate only a tiny portion of a rat's brain.
  • A human brain consists of 100 billion nerve cells. A supercomputer simulating an organ this complicated – using current technology – would take up the space of several soccer fields and draw $3 billion worth of electricity every year.
  • The Blue Brain simulation uses one microprocessor for each of the 10,000 neurons in the cortical column of a rat's cerebral cortex.
  • Blue Brain started producing flashes of activity that scientists recognized from measurements of natural brain behavior – on its very first day. “It happened entirely on its own,” says the project leader in Lausanne, Dr. Henry Markram. “Spontaneously.”

Mind Machine Project

MMP - a project at MIT to build “intelligent machine”. The high-level goal of the Mind Machine project is to reconcile natural intelligence with machine intelligence, and in doing so develop and engineer a class of intelligent machines. The work is divided into teams under the broad categories of Mind, Body, Memory, and Brain/Intent.

Mind: Develop a software model capable of understanding human social contexts- the signpost that establish these contexts, and the behaviors and conventions associated with them. Research areas: hierarchical and reflective common sense Lead researchers: Marvin Minsky, Patrick Winston

Body: Explore candidate physical systems as substrate for embodied intelligence Research areas: recongurable asynchronous logic automata, propagators Lead researchers: Neil Gershenfeld, Ben Recht, Gerry Sussman

Memory: Further the study of data storage and knowledge representation in the brain; generalize the concept of memory for applicability outside embodied local actor context Research areas: common sense Lead researcher: Henry Lieberman

Brain and Intent: Study the embodiment of intent in neural systems. It incorporates wet laboratory and clinical components, as well as a mathematical modeling and representation component. Develop functional brain and neuron interfacing abilities. Use intent-based models to facilitate representation and exchange of information. Research areas: wet computer, brain language, brain interfaces Lead researchers: Newton Howard, Sebastian Seung, Ed Boyden

The Semantic Pointer Architecture

From the project website:
“Higher-level cognitive functions in biological systems are made possible by semantic pointers. Semantic pointers are neural representations that carry partial semantic content and are composable into the representational structures necessary to support complex cognition.”

Other

  • Ludzie wykorzystują zaledwie kilka/kilkanaście procent mózgu - to nieprawda, człowiek wykorzystuje cały mózg jednocześnie, a różne jego obszary odpowiadają różnym funkcjom.

Reprezentacja mowy w mózgu u osób dwujęzycznych (pl)

Pierwszy i drugi język są u dwujęzycznych osób reprezentowane w różnych rejonach mózgu (Behavioral and Brain Functions).

Od jakiegoś czasu naukowcy zastanawiali się, w jaki sposób różne języki są reprezentowane w naszym mózgu, w tym jak są reprezentowane języki o podobnej i odmiennej budowie fonetycznej, morfologicznej i syntaktycznej. Niektóre badania wykazywały, że wszystkie języki opanowywane w ciągu życia są związane z tym samym obszarem mózgu, podczas gdy inne wspominały o ich rozdzieleniu. Przykładowe wyniki potwierdzające początkową tezę potwierdzają badania 41-letniego mężczyzny, który będąc osobą dwujęzyczną (arabski - ojczysty/hebrajski) doznał urazu mózgu (lokalnego urazu), co zaowocowało pogorszeniem i osłabieniem zdolności językowych związanych tylko z jednym z języków - hebrajskim. (link en,link pl)

Genes to brain relation (en)

C-eleganse - a worn with just 302 neurons (~brain :-) ) with known connectivity of the neurons used to test relations between genes and brain.

Brain Computer Interface BCI (en)

  • Neuro Sky - first public available BCI
  • Emotive - BCI, not recommended (one of students bought it, and it's hopeless in use)

Brain visualization and database etc

  • Printable version
  • Tell by mail
  • Export to OpenOffice
  • Export to PDF
  • Export to csv
  • Export to Timeline
  • Add page to book
  • Tools:
notatki/brain_sc/brain.txt · Last modified: 2019/03/21 13:06 (external edit)